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初中英语语法总结

2021-09-13 12:21:48

:初中英语语法归纳

初中英语语法

初中英语语法归纳:名词

初中英语学习最难的是语法,因为英语的语法跟汉语的语法有很大的不同。对于从小就生活在中国的同学们,学起英语语法来会显得特别吃力。下面为大家讲解一下初中英语名词的语法特点。

一、名词(n.) 表示人、事物或抽象概念的名称的词

(一)名词的分类

名词分为普通名词和专有名词,其中普通名词包括可数名词和不可数名词,可数名词可用作单数,也可用作复数。

可数名词包括个体名词(表示一类人或物的个体。如:boy,desk,cat,window)和集体名词(由若干

个体组成的集合体。如:family,class,police)。

不可数名词包括物质名词(表示无法分为个体的实物。如:water,paper,silk,money)和抽象名词(表示性质、行为、状态、感情或其它抽象概念。如:work,happiness,music,difficulty,housework)

专有名词表示个人、地方、机构、组织等。如:Tom,the Great Wall,the Spring Festival,France,the United States)

(二)名词的数

1.可数名词有单数和复数两种形式,其复数形式的构成主要有以下几种:

(1)一般情况下,在词尾加s.

eg.book——books,dog——dogs,pen——pens,boy——boys

以轻辅音结尾的名词后的s的读音为[s],以浊辅音和元音结尾名词后的s读音为〔z〕。

(2)以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词名词变复数时,要在词尾加es.

eg.beach——beaches,brush——brushes,bus——buses,box—boxes(es读音为〔iz〕

(3)以―辅音字母+y‖结尾的名词,先变y为i,再加es.

eg.city——cities,family——families,documentary——documentaries,country——countries,

strawberry——strawberries(ies读音为[iz])

(注:以―元音字母+y‖结尾的词,直接在词尾加-s.eg.boys,holidays,days)

(4)以o结尾的名词,变复数时情况如下:

①,.tomato—tomatoes,potato—potatoes, hero—heroes negro ——negroes mongo——mongoesp

②结尾是两个元音字母的加s,eg.zoo—zoos,radio——radios ③某些外来词变复数时词尾加s,eg. piano—pianos

④一些名词的缩写形式变复数时,词尾加s,

eg.photo(photograph)——photos,kilo(kilogram)kilos

⑤zero变复数时,既可加s,也可加 eg.zeros/zeroes

(5)以f或fe结尾的名词变复数时,先把f或fe变为v,再加es.

eg.wife——wives,leaf leaves,half——halves,knife—knives,thief——thieves(res读音为[vz]

(注意:roof的复数为roofs; scarf的复数为scarfs/scarves)

(6)有些名词由单数变复数时,不是在词尾加s或es,而是变换其中的字

eg.man——men,woman——women,policeman——policemen,Englishman——Englishmen,Frenchman——Frenchmen, foot——feet, tooth——teeth,

child——children,mouse—mice,Ox—Oxen(公牛)

(7)还有一些名词的单数和复数形式相同。

eg.Chinese,Japanese,sheep,deer,fish

(8)另一些名词本身即是复数形式,不可用作单数。

eg,people,police,trousers,pants,clothes,scissors

另外,①当一个名词作定语说明另一个名词时,这个名词一般用单数。

eg.an apple tree,five apple trees,a girl friend,two girl friends,a twin sister 但是,当man和woman作定语修饰复数名词时,就要用其复数形式。

eg.two men teachers,three women doctors

②可用―量词+of+名词复数‖这一结构表示可数名词的数量。www.shanpow.com_初中英语语法总结。

eg.a room Of students,two boxes Of pencils

2.不可数名词一般没有复数形式,它的―量‖的表示方式如下。

(1)表不定数量时,一般用much,(a)little,a lot of/lots of,some,any等词修饰。 eg,much money,a little bread

(2)表确定数量时,一般用―数词+量词+of+不可数名词。如:two/three/…+量词复数十of+不可数名词。

eg.a bag Of rice,two glasses Of milk,four bottles Of water

3.有些名词既可作可数名词也可作不可数名词,但词义有所不同。

eg: fruit水果——fruits表示不同种类的水果;food食物——foods各种食品;fish鱼——fishes鱼的种类;drink饮料、酒——a drink一杯/一份饮料、一杯酒; cloth布——,a cloth桌布、抹布; sand沙——sands沙滩; tea茶——a tea一杯茶;chicken鸡肉——a chicken小鸡;orange橘汁——an orange橘子; glass玻璃——a glass玻璃杯,glasses眼镜; paper纸——a paper试卷、论文;wood木头——a wood小森林;room空间、余地——a room房间

(三)名词的所有格(表示人或物的所属关系)

(1)有生命的名词所有格以及表示时间、距离、城镇、国家等的名词所有格。 ①不是以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,在词尾加’s.

eg.Mike’s watch;Women’s Day

②以s结尾的名词变成所有格时,只加’。

eg.teachers’office,students’rooms

③两个或两个以上名词并列,表示共同所有,只需在最后一个名词后加’s.

eg.Tom and Mike’s room汤姆和迈克的房间(表示汤姆和迈克共有一间房) ④两个或两个以上名词并列,表示分别所有,需在几个名词后都加’s.

eg.Mary’s and Jenny’s bikes玛丽和詹妮的自行车(表示玛丽和詹妮各自的自行车)

(2)无生命的事物的名词所有格常用of结构

eg.a map Of China,the beginning Of this game,the door Of the room

(3)特殊形式

①可用’s和of短语表示的名词所有格

eg.the boy’s name=the name Of the boy(男孩的名字)

the dog’s legs=the legs of the dog(狗的腿)

China’s population=the population Of China(中国的人口)

China’s capital=the capital of China(中国的首都)

②双重所有格

eg.a fiend of my mother’s我妈妈的一个朋友

a picture of Tom’s汤姆的一张图片

初中英语语法名词的知识点总结,希望对于同学们的英语学习有所帮助和裨益,祝大家的学习越来越好!

初中英语语法归纳:连词

初中英语学习最难的是语法,因为英语的语法跟汉语的语法有很大的不同。初中英语连词有很多种。下面为大家讲解一下初中英语连词的用法。

连词是一种虚词,它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词,短语与短语以及句与句的作用。连词主要可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。

第一类表示并列关系的连词

并列连词:并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组和分句。

1) and 和

判断改错:

(错) They sat down and talk about something.

(错) They started to dance and sang.

(错) I saw two men sitting behind and whisper there.

(对) They sat down and talked about something.

(对) They started to dance and sing.

(对)I saw two men sitting behind and whispering there.www.shanpow.com_初中英语语法总结。

解析:

第一句: and 连接两个并列的谓语,所以 talk 应改为 talked。

第二句:and 连接两个并列的动词不定式,第二个不定式往往省略to,因此sang 应改为 sing。

第三句:and 连接感观动词saw 后面的用作的宾补的两个并列分词结构,因此whisper应改为whispering。

注意:1. and 还可以和祈使句或名词词组连用表示条件。(or也有此用法) Make up your mind, and you'll get the chance.

= If you make up your mind, you'll get the chance.

www.shanpow.com_初中英语语法总结。

One more effort, and you'll succeed.

= If you make one more effort, you'll succeed

2, A and B 当表示整体或者指同一人时谓语动词用单数, 当and连接的单数名词前分别有each,every,many等词修饰时,谓语也用单数。

bread and butter a knife and fork

The mother and teacher is very strict with her son.

No teacher and no student is allowed to smoke in class.

3. and连接的是两个相同意思的词,表示―渐渐‖,或加强语气

Read it again and again

2) both …and 两者都

She plays (both) the piano and the guitar.

3) neither…nor 意思为"既不……也不……"谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致。

Neither you nor he is to blame.

4) not only…but (also)不但······而且······

She plays not only the piano, but (also) the guitar.

注意: not only… but also 关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词not 而必须倒装。 Not only does he like reading stories, but also he can even write some.

5) as well as 以及,也,与···同样

The teacher, as well as the students, is interested in the activity.

比较and和or

1) 并列结构中,or通常用于否定句,and用于肯定句。

2) 但有时and 也可用于否定句。请注意其不同特点:

www.shanpow.com_初中英语语法总结。

There is no air or water in the moon.

There is no air and no water on the moon.

在否定中并列结构用or 连接,但含有两个否定词的句子实际被看作是肯定结构,因此要用and。

第二类表示选择关系的连词

1) or 意思为"或则"。

Which do you prefer, tea, coffee, or juice

2) either…or 意思为"或者……或者 ……"。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。 Either you or I am right.

3) or else/ otherwise 否则

Be silent, or else you will be kicked out.

I am tired, otherwise, I would play.

第三类表示转折或对比关系的连词

1) but 但是 He is rich but unhappy.

while 然而,表示对比意味 Some people love cats, while others hate them. yet 然而 She said she would be late, yet she arrived on time.

however 然而,可是,不过 She does not like him, however, I like him.

2) not…but… 意思为"不是 ……而是……"

not 和but 后面的用词要遵循一致原则。

They were not the bones of an animal, but (the bones) of a human being. 第四类表因果关系的连词

1) for 因为,做并列连词使用时,是在对先行的句子补述原因或者理由,只可以连接句子与句子,通常不置于句首。

He is absent today, for he is ill.

2) so, therefore 因此

He hurt his leg, so he couldn't play in the game.

I think, therefore I am

3)then 那么,因而

Hide behind the wall, then they won’t see you.

:初中英语语法大全(总结篇)

1 (see 、hear 、notice 、find 、feel 、listen to 、 look at (感官动词)+do eg:I like watching monkeys jump 2 (比较级 and 比较级) 表示越来越怎么样

3 a piece of cake =easy 小菜一碟(容易)

4 agree with sb 赞成某人

5 all kinds of 各种各样 a kind of 一样

6 all over the world = the whole world 整个世界

7 along with同……一道,伴随…… eg : I will go along with you我将和你一起去

the students planted trees along with their teachers 学生同老师们一起种树

8 As soon as 一怎么样就怎么样

9 as you can see 你是知道的

10 ask for ……求助 向…要…(直接接想要的东西) eg : ask you for my book

11 ask sb for sth 向某人什么

12 ask sb to do sth 询问某人某事 ask sb not to do 叫某人不要做某事

13 at the age of 在……岁时 eg:I am sixteen I am at the age of sixteen

14 at the beginning of …… ……的起初;……的开始

15 at the end of +地点/+时间 最后;尽头;末尾 eg : At the end of the day

16 at this time of year 在每年的这个时候

17 be /feel confident of sth /that clause +从句 感觉/对什么有信心,自信

eg : I am / feel confident of my spoken English I feel that I can pass the test

18 be + doing 表:1 现在进行时 2 将来时

19 be able to (+ v 原) = can (+ v 原) 能够…… eg : She is able to sing She can sing

20 be able to do sth 能够干什么 eg :she is able to sing

21 be afraid to do (of sth 恐惧,害怕…… eg : I'm afraed to go out at night I'm afraid of dog 22 be allowed to do 被允许做什么

eg: I'm allowed to watch TV 我被允许看电视 I should be allowed to watch TV 我应该被允许看电视

23 be angry with sb 生某人的气 eg : Don't be angry with me

24 be angry with(at) sb for doing sth 为什么而生某人的气

25 be as…原级…as 和什么一样 eg : She is as tall as me 她和我一样高

26 be ashamed to

27 be away from 远离

28 be away from 从……离开

29 be bad for 对什么有害 eg : Reading books in the sun is bad for your eyes 在太阳下看书对你的眼睛不好

30 be born 出生于

31 be busy doing sth 忙于做什么事 be busy with sth 忙于……

32 be careful 当心;小心

33 be different from…… 和什么不一样

34 be famous for 以……著名

35 be friendly to sb 对某人友好

36 be from = come from 来自 eg :He is from Bejing He comes from Bejing Is he from Bejing ? Does he come from Bejing

37 be full of 装满……的 be filled with 充满 eg: the glass is full of water the glass is filled with water

38 be glad+to+do/从句

39 be going to + v(原) 将来时

40 be good at(+doing) = do well in 在某方面善长, 善于……

41 be good for 对什么有好处 eg : Reading aloud is good for your English

42 be happy to do 很高兴做某事

43 be helpful to sb 对某人有好处

eg : Reading aloud is helpful to you 大声朗读对你有好处

Exercising is helpful to your bady 锻炼对你的身体有好处

44 be in good health 身体健康

45 be in trouble 处于困难中 eg : She is in trouble They are in tronble

46 be interested in 对某方面感兴趣

47 be late for = come late to 迟到 eg: Be late for class 上课迟到

48 be like 像…… eg : I'm like my mother

49 be mad at 生某人的气

50 be made from 由……制成(制成以后看不见原材料)

51 be made of 由……制成(制成以后还看得见原材料) 52 be not sure 表不确定

53 be on a visit to 参观

54 be popular with sb 受某人欢迎

55 be quiet 安静

56 be short for 表**的缩写 eg: 陶 is short for 陶俊杰

57 be sick in bed 生病在床

58 be sorry to do sth be sorry for sb eg : I am sorry for you

59 be sorry to hear that 60 be sorry to trouble sb eg : I am sorry to trouble you

61 be strict in doing sth 严于做某事 eg : He's strict in obeying noles

62 be strict with sb 对某人要求严格 eg: Some students are not strict with them selves 这些学生对自己不严格

63 be strict with sb in sth 某方面对某人严格

64 be supposed to do 被要求干什么

65 be sure 表确定

66 be sure of doing sth 对做某事有信心 eg: He is sure of winning I am sure of learning English well

67 be sure of sth 对做某事有信心 eg: I'm sure of my head (my teacher 我相信我的大脑(老师) 68 be sure that sth 对做某事有信心 eg: I'm suer that he can pass the test 我相信他能通过考试 69 be sure to do sth一定会做某事eg: We are sure to pass the test 我们一定会通过这次考试 We are sure to learn English well 我们一定能学好英语

70 be terrified of + 名/动doing 害怕……

71 be terrified to do sth 害怕做某事

72 be the same as … 和什么一样

73 be used to doing sth 习惯做某事
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